Table of Figures
Figure 0‑1 Various pathways to net-zero consumption-based GHG emissions for Switzerland.
Figure 0‑2 Potential and costs of different NETs in Switzerland
Figure 0‑3 Change in per capita CO2 emissions and GDP, Switzerland
Figure 1‑1 The Matterhorn and a pathway of emissions
Figure 2‑1: The difference in modal choice between age, gender, level of urbanization, monthly income per household and language region. Means of transport are: by foot, bicycle, bike, car, public transport (excluding trains), trains and others (BFS 2017).
Figure 2‑2: The emitted GHG emission per person-km [kgCO2-eq/pkm] in Switzerland compared between the different means of transport. Included are the GHG emissions produced through the provided infrastructure, the production, and the operation (including maintenance and disposal). Based on ESU-Database 2020. Electric vehicles were modeled with green power as energy sources (ESU 2020).
Figure 2‑3: Development of prices for public transport and private mobility, set in relation to the income of households. Since 2010, the trends of the different parameters are diverging (BFS 2018).
Figure 2‑4: The amount of goods transported on roads and rails plotted over time. On roads, domestic and foreign heavy vehicle goods and domestic light vehicle goods are represented. The graph does not include the tare weight of containers into the amount of goods transported on rails (FSO 2019c).
Figure 2‑5: World Seaborne trade carried by container ships from 1980 to 2017 (in millions tonnes loaded). Statistica 2020.
Figure 2‑6: Global warming potential per passenger kilometer for planes, cars, coaches and trains (Jungbluth and Meili 2018). The BBC reported comparable statistics (Timperley 2020).
Figure 2‑7: Growth Flight Passengers (FSO 2019d). The number of flight passengers has grown by over 60% in the last two decades, much more than the population and other modes of transport have increased. The decrease in aviation from 2000-2003 was due to the 09/11 attacks.
Figure 2‑8: Custom plot for c=60
Figure 3‑1 In a condensed perimeter block neighborhood (approx. 100 x 100 m floor space, up to 8 floors), approx. 500 people can live and partly also work.
Figure 3‑2 Evolution of land uses 1985-2009 (in m2/s) (FSO 2019a).
Figure 4‑1: Development of emissions in the main Swiss industrial sectors since 1990 (data from BAFU (2020d))
Figure 4‑2: Visualization of the different policy instruments and the emissions they cover
Figure 4‑3 Development of emissions under source category 2F Product uses as substitutes for ozone depleting substances. HFC and small amounts of PFC are used as substitutes for ozone depleting substances. Most relevant today are emissions from the built up refrigerant stock in refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. (FOEN 2020d)Social compatibility
Figure 5‑1 Various estimates for the potential of photovoltaics on the roof surfaces of buildings in Switzerland (numbers in TWh p.a.).
Figure 5‑2: Dispersion of the standardized PV gain among the number of buildings and solar collectors respectively, according to sonnendach.ch. For roof structures a lump deduction of 30% per roof surface area has been included.
Figure 5‑3: Distribution of the roof surface area according to sonnendach.ch (raw areas without correcting factors as a lump deduction for chimneys, roof structures etc.)
Figure 5‑4 Frequency of different annual gains per solar plant. (Source of data being sonnendach.ch, grouped by UUID with a correcting factor of 0.7 as a lump deduction e.g. for chimneys, roof structures etc.)
Figure 5‑5: Distribution of the electricity yield correlating with the size of the plant according to Table 5‑2. Solar plants with a capacity <4 kWp are not plotted because of their minor part in the production of electricity.
Figure 5‑6: PV electricity demand for the year 2050 (“Growth according to federal government” blue line or “Sufficiency” scenario gray line) and PV production depending on how much the PV potential is effectively used on existing infrastructures.
Figure 5‑7: Proposal for a rapid expansion of PV production by 2035.
Figure 5‑8: Number of PV specialist planners required to expand electricity production from PV according to Figure 5‑7.
Figure 5‑9: The development of the installed capacity (red), electricity production (dark blue) and expected production (light blue) since 2005.
Figure 5‑10: Investment costs of the demand scenarios until 2035, supply variant C+D+E (Consentec 2015)
Figure 5‑11: Investment costs of the demand scenarios until 2050, supply variant C+D+E (Consentec 2015)
Figure 6‑1 Greenhouse gas emissions of the Swiss agricultural and food industry 1990-2011
Figure 6‑2 Consumption and greenhouse gas intensities of food groups
Figure 6‑3 Climate-Friendly Production System (original graphic in German: (D. Bretscher and Felder 2019))
Figure 7‑1 Global Negative Emissions used in the 1.5 °C compatible integrated pathways of the 2018 IPCC Special Report Global Warming of 1.5 °C over time (Huppmann et al. 2018). All 90 pathways use NETs. The median of the pathways starts the usage of NETs by 2021.
Figure 7‑2 Possible emission pathway for Switzerland with 13% annual decrease and the usage and costs of NETs reaching net 0 GHG emissions by 2030.
Figure 7‑3 Schematic representation of CO2 removal from the air (DAC) (Beuttler et al., 2019)
Figure 7‑4 ETH Zürich: NET ZERO by 2050. Decarbonizing large emitters in Switzerland (Group for Sustainability and Technology ETH Zürich)
Figure 7‑5 *in Switzerland 500Mt CO2 in total (dark green), abroad at least 2000 Gt (light green). ** Potential fully exploited when saturated (light green)
Figure 9‑1 Time series of energy related emissions from 1990 until 2018 Source: (FOEN 2019d)
Figure 9‑2 Time series of energy related emissions from 1990 until 2018 (FOEN 2019d)
Figure 9‑3 Production vs. consumption-based CO2 Emissions, Switzerland
Figure 9‑4 Exemplary pathway towards zero emissions by 2030 (territorial), beginning reduction in 2020
Figure 9‑5 Exemplary pathway towards zero emissions by 2030 (consumption-based), beginning reduction in 2020
Figure 9‑6 Exemplary pathway towards net-zero emissions by 2030 (territorial), beginning reduction in 2020
Figure 9‑7 Exemplary pathway towards net-zero emissions by 2030 (consumption-based), beginning reduction in 2020
Figure 9‑8 World GDP over the last two millennia
Figure 9‑9 Annual total CO2 emissions, by world region
Figure 9‑10 Change in CO2 Emissions and GDP per capita, Switzerland
Figure 9‑11 CO2 reductions through the characteristics catalog Climate Policy 2030 for passenger cars on the impact level
Figure 10‑1 International Climate Finance needs to be mobilized in addition to already existing development assistance (ODA) (Alliance Sud 2019, 16).